The Spanish Carmelite Missionaries first evangelized the territory comprising the Diocese of Dinajpur in the 17th century. Since mid-19th century the territory became the part of the Mission of Krishnagar (now the Diocese of Krishanagar in West Bengal, India). The PIME Missionaries first came to work in the area in 1855 and have been here ever since.
In 1927, the Diocese of Dinajpur was canonically erected comprising the entire North Bengal. The new Diocese was entrusted to the PIME Missionaries, and Rt. Rev. Santino Taveggia PIME, until then Bishop of Krishnagar, became the first Bishop of Dinajpur. Their main collaborators were the Sisters of Charity (Maria Bambina). In 1952 the Diocesan Congregation of the Catechist Sisters of the Immaculate Hear of Mary the Queen of Angels (C.I.C.) was founded by late Bishop Rt. Rev. Joseph Obert (PIME.). The Missionary Sisters of the Immaculate (PIME) arrived in the diocese in 1953.
In 1952, after partition of India in 1947, the areas of the Dioceses in India, at present the Dioceses of Dumka, Raiganj and part of Jalpaiguri, were detached from the Diocese of Dinajpur. In January 1976 the District of Pabna, along with St. Rita's Parish, Mathurapur, was transferred from the jurisdiction of the Archdiocese of Dhaka to the diocese of Dinajpur, so that the diocese comprised the whole of North Bengal (Rajshahi Division), across the rivers Jamuna and Ganges.
In May 1990 the new Diocese of Rajshahi was created comprising the Southern territories of the Diocese of Dinajpur. In 1996 Rt. Rev. Theotonius Gomes, CSC was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Dhaka Archdiocese. In 2011 Most Rev. Moses M. Costa, CSC was transferred to the Diocese of Chittagong.